TIMELINE OF THE MAYA
3100 B.C. According to the Mayan calendar, the creation of the world takes place
2600 B.C. The Mayan culture begins to form in the highlands and lowlands of Central America. Village farming techniques are established
1500 B.C. The Pre-Classic period of the Maya begins as the culture begins to flourish
700 B.C. The first writing appears in Mesoamerica
400 B.C. Stone Mayan solar calendars, the earliest known, first appear
300 B.C. Major Mayan cities start to dot the landscape., including Tikal, Uaxactun and El Mirador. The royal system of rule by kings and nobles is established
200 A.D. As the Olmec civilization declines, the Maya become the dominant power in the region. The Classic Period, a peak of knowledge of cultural expression, begins.
600 A.D. The city of Tikal reaches a population of 500,000, becoming the largest and most powerful city-state in Mesoamerica, while an unknown event destroys the once powerful city of Teotihuacan.
750 A.D. A period of war and tumult ensues as Mayan trade declines and conflict between Mayan states increases
800 A.D. Many major Mayan cities are abandoned, as power shifts eastward to cities
such as Coba in Mexico.
899 A.D. Tikal is abandoned
900 A.D. With the collapse of the great cities, the Post Classic period begins. Although many Mayan townships continue their traditional ways, within a few
hundred years the Maya culture will have become mixed with the Toltec culture
1517 A.D. The Spanish arrive in the Yucatan, bringing diseases that will kill 90% of the remaining Mayan population. Though most of the Maya are conquered, many continue to revolt against Spanish rule in skirmishes that continue for a century
1695 A.D. The ruins of Tikal are discovered by a Spanish priest
1697 A.D. The last functioning Maya City, Tayasal, falls
2012 A.D. On December 22, the Mayan calendar ends. According to the Mayan prophecy, the world will be forever altered by a series of powerful earthquakes.
A GLOSSARY OF MAYAN PHRASES FROM APOCALYPTO
"My Son, don't be afraid" (Flint Sky to Jaguar Paw)
In Mayan: In waal ma' saajakta.
"We seek a new beginning." (Fish Hinter to Jaguar Paw)
In Mayan: Yan kaxtik tuumben chuunuj.
"Our life is over."
In Mayan: Ak kuxtale' ts'o'oki
"Our lands were ravaged" (Fish Hunter)
In Mayan: K-lu'uma p'ap'ay xoot ta'abi.
"Fear is a disease. Strike it from your heart." (Flint Sky to Jaguar Paw)
In Mayan: Le saajkilo jump'eel k'oja'anil. Jo'os ta puksi'ik'al.
"I saw a hole in the Man. Deep, like a hunger he will never fill.."
In Mayan: Tene' tin wilaj lu'ulumkabe yaan ti jump'eel noj jool tu puksi'ik'al. Jun'p'eel jool bey wi'ij mun xu'upule.
"Go to the forest. Run. Do not look back."
In Mayan: Puuts' ene'ex tu t's'u noj k'aax. Ma' sut ka wiche'ex.
"Raise up your spirit. Believe you have strength."
In Mayan: Liik'sa wo'ol, tukle'e yaan a muuk'.
"I am Jaguar Paw, son of Flint Sky. My Father hunted this forest before me. My name is Jaguar Paw. I am a hunter. This is my forest. And my sons will hunt it with their sons after I am gone."
In Mayan: Tene' J-Yich'ak, u yaalen J-Tuunich Ka'an. Leti'e' ts'oonaj te' ts'u noj k'aaxa' taanil ti' teen. In k'aaba'e' J-Yich'ak. J-ts'oonaalen. Le noj k'aaxa' in tial. In paalal yaan u ts'oono' weye' yeetel u paalalo'ob xan ken xi'iken.
MEL GIBSON (Director/Producer/Co-Screenwriter) directed, co-wrote and produced the worldwide box-office phenomenon "The Passion of the Christ" (2004), the highest grossing independent film in history (over $600 million worldwide). He directed, produced and starred in the critical and box-office success "Braveheart" (1995) which received 10 Academy Award® nominations and won five including Best Picture and Best Director. In addition, he received a Golden Globe as Best Director, a Special Achievement in Filmmaking Award from the National Board of Review, the National Association of Theatre Owners/ShoWest award as Director of the Year, and was named Best Director by the Broadcast Film Critics' Association. He was further nominated for the "David Lean Award for Direction" and for an "Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures" by the Directors Guild of America.
Gibson attended the National Institute of Dramatic Arts (NIDA) at the University of New South Wales, where his stage appearances included the role of Biff in Arthur Miller's "Death of a Salesman." On the strength of his stage work Gibson came to the attention of physician-turned-film-director George Miller, who cast him in the title role in "Mad Max" (1979), the low budget science-fiction car chase thriller that became a surprise smash around the world. The same year he played an almost diametrically opposite role as a gentle mentally handicapped man in Tim, and won the Australian Film Institute's Best Actor award. He was further established as an international star by Peter Weir's "Gallipoli" (1981), which brought him a second Australian Best Actor prize, and by Miller's "Mad Max 2: The Road Warrior" (1981), which was released in the USA by Warner Bros.
Gibson solidified his reputation when he teamed with Weir again for "The Year of Living Dangerously" (1983) for which he was nominated "Best Actor in a Lead Role" by the Australian Film Institute. He then made his American debut opposite Sissy Spacek in "The River" (1984), portrayed mutineer Fletcher Christian in Roger Donaldson's "The Bounty" (1984), and a charismatic young convict in Gillian Armstrong's dark romance Mrs. Soffel" (1984). But it was undoubtedly the continuation of the Mad Max series, "Mad Max: Beyond Thunderdome" (1985), and the opening salvo of an even more durable action-adventure franchise, "Lethal Weapon" (1987), that truly certified his standing as a global superstar.
After starring in "Tequila Sunrise" (1988), "Lethal Weapon 2" (1989), "Air America" (1990), and "Bird on a Wire" (1990), Gibson formed Icon Productions with partner Bruce Davey to produce "Hamlet" (1990), directed by Franco Zeffirelli. The role brought him the William Shakespeare Award from the Folger Library in Washington, DC. Gibson has since starred in several Icon projects, including "Forever Young" (1992), "Maverick" (1994), "Payback" (1999) and "What Women Want" (2000), while continuing to work in films produced by other companies, such as Ron Howard's "Ransom" (1996) for which he was nominated for a Golden Globe® in the "Best Actor, Motion Picture Drama" category and Richard Donner's "Conspiracy Theory" (1997). Gibson also made his directorial debut in 1993 with Icon's "The Man Without a Face."
In 2000, Gibson became the first actor to star in three films in the same year that each earning $100 million in domestic gross: Roland Emmerich's "The Patriot," the animated adventure comedy "Chicken Run," lending his voice to Rocky, and the smash hit "What Women Want," co-starring Helen Hunt. He was nominated for a Golden Globe® for his performance, in the "Best Actor, Motion Picture Comedy" category. In 2002, Gibson starred in Randall Wallace's "We Were Soldiers" and in M. Night Shyamalan's box-office smash (over $400 million) "Signs."
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